JPEG: They are essentially set up to store as many images on the memory card as possible some cameras will have options for different quality levels of JPEG (low, medium, high) and this is probably the best known of all image file formats, what the majority of digital cameras provide as a digital output from a camera Also it’s a quicker file transfer times, due to smaller file size.
TIFF: This is the most commonly used industry- standard file format, and is generally what print or publishers ask for even if the end file format required is a JPEG, the initial captured file would be TIFF these file formats are usually uncompressed, and as a result offer the opportunity for extensive post- processing also has the ability to manipulate photos extensively in photo editing software.
RAW: Raw files are generally available on advanced compact cameras and DSLRs and quite simply put; it is the best option if you want to get the absolute best file from your camera this is the option preferred by professional photographers The problem with not using raw files is that your camera will make adjustments, which are permanently embedded into your photos RAW files are compressed using a processed using a process that retains all of the information originally capture also this is the best quality image file is captured.
DNA (Digital Negative): This file format, created by adobe, is an attempt to create a standard raw file format across all manufacturers and cameras this is offered as a main raw file format, or as an alternative to the manufacturer’s native raw format the benefit of the raw file is the ability to use image processing software such as lightroom and photoshop.
PNG: The strength of PNGs are that they are compressed in a lossless format, and so retain all the digital detail but unlike other files formats the quality doesn’t mean big file size, which are not useful on the internet where you need pages to be loaded quickly.
GIF: GIF file is ideal for use on the internet lossless compression means image quality is not sacrificed, and like PNGs they also offer the ability to maintain transparency also allow for animation however the limitation of GIF file are that they can only contain a maximum of 256 colors and therefore are not the best choice for photos.
BMP: Invented initially for use on windows platform but is now recognized by programs on mac as well BMPs are large file size as color data is saved in each individual pixel in the image without any compression this provides a high quality digital file, which is great for use in print, but not ideal for web usage.
PSD: This file type is what Adobe photoshop uses as a default to save data this big advantage of PSD files are that it allows for manipulation on specific individual layers, rather than on the main image itself this makes it absolutely essential for any sort of extensive manipulation of the original photography such as retouching.